House of Orléans - Expansion and Empire
When France colonised America, its capital was named la Nouvelle-Orléans in honour of Louis XV's regent, the duke of Orléans, and was settled with French inhabitants against the threat from British troops to the north-east.
The House of Bourbon-Orléans was founded in the 1660s as a junior branch of the royal Bourbon line, by Prince Philippe, the younger son of King Louis XIII and younger brother of King Louis XIV, known as the Sun King.
House Broglie - Free Trade and Mercantilism
The Great Plague of Marseille was the last of the significant European outbreaks of bubonic plague. Arriving in Marseille, France in 1720, the disease killed a total of 100,000 people: 50,000 in the city during the next two years and another 50,000 to the north in surrounding provinces and towns. Despite the large number of deaths, Marseille recovered quickly from the plague outbreak. Economic activity took only a few years to recover, as trade expanded to the West Indies and Latin America.
House Condé - Protectionism and Defence
The 18th century was the golden age of Bordeaux. Many downtown buildings (about 5,000), including those on the quays, are from this period. Victor Hugo found the town so beautiful he once said: "Take Versailles, add Antwerp, and you have Bordeaux".
House Leszczyński - Trade Protection and Isolationism
After King Stanislaw of Poland was deposed, he was granted the Duchy of Lorraine. He proved to be a good administrator and promoted economic development, particularly within the textile industry.
Traditionalism and Order, loyal to Pope Benedict XIV
The First Estate comprised the entire clergy, traditionally divided into "higher" and "lower" clergy. Although there was no formal demarcation between the two categories, the upper clergy were, effectively, clerical nobility, from the families of the Second Estate.
Louis XIV had placed all church property in France under the control of the State, rather than Rome, which had angered the Holy See. His persecution of non-Catholics went some way to smoothing that over.
Individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude, "Dare to know"
Few were primarily philosophers; rather, philosophes were public intellectuals who applied reason to the study of many areas of learning, including philosophy, history, science, politics, economics, and social issues. They had a critical eye and looked for weaknesses and failures that needed improvement. They promoted a "republic of letters" that crossed national boundaries and allowed intellectuals to freely exchange books and ideas.
Loyal to King Louis XV and the House of Bourbon
The Musketeers were among the most prestigious of the military companies of the Ancien Régime, and in principle membership in the companies was reserved for nobles. With the reforms of Michel le Tellier – which mandated a certain number of years of military service before nobles could attain the rank of officer – many nobles sought to do this service in the privileged Musketeer companies.
With the founding of the Ecole Militaire in 1750, many young nobles found themselves as peacocking officers at the Royal Court.